Nature of C-X bond in Haloalkanes Preparation and Properties
→ In these compounds, formation of C-X bond takes piace by the overlapping of sp3 -hybridised orbital of carbon and 3p (half-filled) orbital of chlorine (sp3-p overlapping). This overlapping can be shown as below:
→ Aithought C-X bond is covalent bond but value of electronegativity of carbon atom is 2.6 which is less than electronegativity of halogen atom. So, due to difference in electronegativities, nature of C-X bond is polar. Therefore, the halogen atom bears a partial negative charge whereas t carbon atom bears a partial positive charge.