Classification of Alcohols Preparation and Properties

Classification of Alcohols :

Alcohols are classified into various types based on different parameters.

Classification based on nature of hydrocarbons:

→ Aliphatic Alcohols : Alcohols in which hydroxyl group is bonded to the aliphatic carbon chain are known as aliphatic alcohols.

→ Aromatic Alcohols : Alcohols in which hydroxyl group is bonded to the side chain of aromatic hydrocarbon are known as aromatic alcohols.

Classification based on number of hydroxyl groups:

→ Monohydric Alcohols : Alcohols in which one hydroxyl group is present, are known as monohydric alcohols

→ Dihydric Alcohols : Alcohols in which two hydroxyl groups are present are known as dihydric alcohols.

→ Trihydric Alcohols : Alcohols in which three hydroxyl groups are present are known as trihydric alcohols.

Classification based on hybridisation of carbon atom bonded to hydroxyl group:

→ Alcohols containing $$\mathbf{C}_{\mathrm{sp}^{3}}$$ — OH bond : In this type of alcohols, the hydroxyl group (— OH) is attached to an sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group. They are further classified into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

→ Primary alcohols : Which have one or none alkyl group on the carbon bonded to (— OH) group. They have —CH2OH grOup.

→ Secondary alcohols : Which have two alkyl groups on the carbon bonded to (— OH) group. They have >CHOH group.

→ Tertiary alcohols : Which have three alkyl groups on the carbon bonded to (— OH) group. They have → C—OH group.

→ Alcohols containing $$\mathbf{C}_{s p^{2}}$$ — OH bond : In these alcohols — OH group is bonded to the double bond carbon atom.