Chemistry in Daily Life Preparation and Properties
Summary of the chapter and glossary :
→ Chemotherapy: Use of chemicals in treatment of diseases are called chemotherapy.
→ AnalgesIcs : Drugs which reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system are called analgesics.
→ Non-narcotic Analgesics : These are non-addictive. These drugs are effective in relieving skelatal pain such as that due to arthritis. e.g., aspirin and paracetomol.
→ Narcotic Analgesics : These drugs are addictive. These are the drugs which when administered in small amount releive pain and produce sleep. e.g., morphine, codeine and heroin.
→ Tranquilizers : Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, fatigue and mild or even servere mental diseases. e.g., epronizid, phenalgene etc.
→ Barbiturates : These are the derivative of barbituric acid e.g., veronal, amytal, nembutal, luminal and sleep producing agents.
→ AntimIcrobial : An antimicrobial tends to destroy the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria, fungi etc.
→ Antibiotics : These are the chemical substances produces wholly or partially by chemical synthesis which in low concentration inhibit the growth or destroy microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic process. e.g., suiphapyridine, sulpanylamide etc.
→ Antlseptics : These are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms or kill them. These are applied to wounds, cuts, ulcers etc. e.g., furacin, soframycin etc.
→ Disinfectants : These are chemical substances which kill microorganisms or stop their growth but are harmfull to living tissues. These are used to kill the microorganism present in floors, drains, toilets etc. e.g., 1% solution of phenol etc.
→ Antihitamines or Antiallergic drugs : The drugs which are used in treatment of allergy are called antihistamines. e.g., bromphenaramine, diphenyl hydramine, chioripheniramine etc.
→ Antifertility Drugs : The drugs which are used to prevent unwanted pregnancies. e.g., norethindrone, ethynylestradiol etc.
→ Antacids: Chemical substances which remove the excess acid in the stomach and raise the pH to appropriate level. e.g., sodium hydrogen carbonate, zentac, calcium hydroxide etc.
→ Dyes : The organic compound which are used in colouring of food, paper. walls and other substance are called dyes.
→ Artificial Sweetning Agents : These are the chemical substances which are sweet in taste but do not add any calories to our body. For example: saccharin, aspartame, sucrolose etc.
→ Food Preservatives: Chemical substances which are used to protect food against baëteria, yeasts and moulds are called food preservatives. For example: sodium meta bisulphite, sodium benzoate etc.
→ Cleansing Agents : The substances which are used for cleaning purpose are called cleansing agents.
→ Soaps : Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids e.g.. sodium palmitate.
→ Detergents : These are the cleansing agents which have all properties of soap but actually do not contain any soap. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water.
→ Insect Repellents : Those chemical substances which are used to kill and move away insects are called insect repellents e.g., pheniL begon, andosulphon, phenocol, phenyl, odonyl, odomas etc.
→ Pheromenes – Sex-Attractants : A chemical substance produced and released into thè environment by an animal and affecting the behaviour or physiology of others of its species is called pheromone. e.g., muskon, sevoton etc.
→ Rocket Propellents : Substances used for launching rockets are called rocket propellents. These are the combination of an oxidiser and a fuel.
Other Important Facts
- Treatment of diseases from chemical substances are called chemotherapy.
- Sulpha medicines are called suiphonamides.
- Antipyretics are used to bring down the body temperature during high fever.
- Paracetomol is an example of antîpyretic.
- Antibiotics are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms or kill them hut are not harmful to living human tissues.
- Alexender Flaming discovered the first antibiotic pencillin.
- Antiseptics are the chemical substances which kill microorganisms or stop their growth but are harmful to living tissues. e.g., tincher of iodine, mercurochrome etc.
- 1% solution of phenol is disinfectant but 0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic.
- Mixture of terpineol and ethyl alcohol, chiorozylenol is called dettol.
- The chemical compounds which aré used for treatment of stress, fatigue and several mental diseases are called tranquilizers.
- These releive anxiety, stress, irritability or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being.
- The compounds which decrease the sleep and mental stress are called tranquilizers.
- Wavelength of visible light is 400 nm to 750 nm.
- First useful dye is synthesised by W.H. Parkin in 1856.
- German scientist Otto Witt gives Witt Principle for explain the relation between colour and structure or organic compounds in 1876.
- Compounds which contains chromophores are called chromogen&.
- Sodium benzoate is most useful preservative.
- Elitam is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose.
- Saccharine sweetner is used by diabetics patient.
- Detergents can be used with hard and soft water both.
- All insect repellants affect respiratory system of insects.
- Muscon pheromon is present in Kastoori of Kastoori dear.
- Social attracted pheromens are used in insect controll.
- In solid propellants fuel and oxidiser both are in solid form.
- Carbon fibres are long chain structures of carbon compounds. Carbon fibres are great importance in many fields.