Bio-molecules Preparation and Properties
→ Bio molecule are complex organic compounds, which is important base of life and very important for the growth of living organisms. Some biomolecules are carbohydrates. proteins, vitamins and nucleic acids etc.
→ The energy for growth repair and for general reactions occurring in the body is obtained by various bio-chemical reactions of these biomolecules.
→ Main important component of biomolicules are C, H, N, O, P, S. Each one has its own importance in the living body and its deficiency can cause deformation in the living system.
Summary of the chapter and glossary
→ Biochemistry : The branch of science that deals with the študy of the chemica’ composition and structure of living organisms and molecules in them and also vanous changes taking place within them.
→ Carbohydrates ; Carbohydrates are defined as the polyhydroxy aldehydes and polyhydroxy ketones or the other compounds which give these on hydrolysis.
→ Mono saecharidea : The simple carbohydrates that cannot h broken further into lower sugars on hydrolysis e.g. glucoc, fructose. ribose etc.
→ Oligo saccharides : These arc the carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give two to ten uniz.s of monosaccharides on hydrolysi e.g. sucrose, maltosc etc
→ Polysaecharides : There are the carbohydrates which produce a large number of monosaccharides units on hydrolysis e.g. Starch, cellulose etc,
→ Reducing sugar ; Those carbohydrates which conrain free aldehvdic or ketonic group and reduce Fehling’s solution and Tollen’s reagent are called reducing sugar. e.g. all monosaccharides, maltose and lactose.
→ Non-reducing sugars : The carbohydrates do not reduce Fehlings solution and Tollen’s reagent are called non.reducing sugar. e.g. sucrose.
→ Aldose : If monosaccharides conteins aldehyde group called aldose.
→ Ketose : 1f monosaccharides contains ketone group are called ketose,
→ Fehllng’s Solution : It is dark blue solution. Febling A is aqueous CuSO4 solution and Fehiing B is aquarius NaOH solution in which Rosehell’s sII added in dame volume.
→ Tollen’s Reagent : It is ammonical silver nitrate solution.
→ Anomer : Both cyclic hemicacetal C1 is different in configuration of hydroxyl group. That is called amomerie carbon. Jt.s isomers is called α, β kind.
→ Mulnrotation; Both types of anomers (α and β) dissolve in water and change the specific polar rotation. This type of rotation is called mutarotation.
→ Glycosidic linkage : When two monosaccharides are added remove one molecule of water formed disaccharides that type of bond is called oxide bond and glycoscidic linkage.
→ Invert sugar : Sucrose is soutbpolar hut after hydrolysis it gives-south. Huwever Glucose and north polar fructose pert.aps nghr polar rotation value (- 92.4) is more than south polar rotation (+ 52.5). So hydrolysis of sucrose changes sign from south (+) to north (—). and the product is called Invert sugar.
→ Polypeptide : Polymers ola-amino acids which have high molecular masses up to 10,000 iscI1od polypetides
→ Amino-acids: Amino ida motaim amino (- NH2)and carboxylic t— COOH) functional groups.
→ Neutral nmlno acids: 1f the no. of amino group and carboxylic group are same in amino acids are called neutral amino acids. Example: alanine.
→ Basic Amino acids : It amino groups are moro than carboxylic groups in amino acids are called basic amino acids.
→ Acidic Amino aeid : 1f carboxylic groups are more than amino group in amino acids arc called Acidic amino acids.
→ Essential Amino acids: Amino acids which are not synthesised in human body so it is essential to take in diet are called essential amino acids. e.g. Tryptophan.
→ Non-essential amino acids : That amino acids which are synthesised in human body are called noneaaential amino adds, e.g. Glutamine.
→ Z witter ion or amphoteric ion : Carboxylic group of aqueous solution of amino atids remove one proton but amino group accept one proton thata why it formed dipolar ion. It is called z witter ion.
→ Iso electric point : Amino acids behaves like awitter ion on which pH value is called iso electric point.
→ Peptide linkage : Proteins are polymer nf α-amino acids which bonded by peptide bonds each others. It forms between — NH2 group and – COOH group. ¡t is (—CO—NH—)
FIbrous proteins: When chains of poly peptides are paralied and joined by hydrogen and dieulphide bond then fibre like structure is formed.
→ Globular Proteins : When poly peptides are joined and form circular structure then globular proteins arc formed.
→ Vitamins : Organic substances which are important for growth and biological activities of animals and humans are called vitamins.
Some Importent Points :
- Poly hydroxy aldehyde and katonc or that substance which give poly hydroxy aldehyde or ketone on che hydrolysis arc called carbohydrates.
- Proteins which acts as catalyst in biochemical reaction arc called cymes.
- That organic natural substances which are prepared by use of same or different a-amino acids are called protein.
- Change in value of rotation is solution of substance with time is called mutarotation.
- Disaccharides are classified tnto reducing and non-reducing sugars,
- Sucrose is dissacharide. non reducing sugar which is also called desired sugar.
- Maltose and lactose are disaccharide reducing sugar.
- Maltose is called “Malt sugar” and Lactose is called “Milk sugar”.
- Starch and cellulose are poly saccharides sugar.
- Proteins are polymer of complex amino acids with high molecular masses.
- All preteinee are formed by different composition of 20 amino acids.
- Amino acids contains Amino (— NH) and c’arpoxylic (- COOH) group.
- Pulypebtide and proteins are formed by rondensation of cz•amino acids.
- Changes in struc-ture of proteins due to physical change is called denaturation of proteins.
- Proteins which acts as catalyst in biochemical reactions arc called enzymes.
- Hormones are called “gland juice”, which control and regulate the biochemical reaction in human body.
- Vitamina are complex organic substance. Small quantity of vitamins are necessary in metabolic process and growth of human and animals.
- combined form if DNA and RNA is called nucleic acid.