Structure of Carboxylic Group Preparation and Properties
→ In carboxylic acid all bonds related to carboxyl carbon are in the same plane and are seprated to each other by at 120° angle. Carboxyl group have resonating structures therefore carboxyl carbon is less electrophilic than to carbonyl carbon.
→ It is clear from electron diffractions that carboxylic group have planner nature that’s means the carbon atom from which two oxygen atom are bonded is sp2 hybridised. In carboxylic carbon two sp2 hybrid orbital overlaps with two oxygen atoms.
→ Resonating structure which is given above can be expressed by orbital overlap in the following way: