Method of Preparation of Cyanide and Isocyanide Preparation and Properties
→ From Alkyl Halides : Alkyl cyanide are prepared by heating an alkyl halide with an aqueous ethanolic solution of KCN.
→ Alkyl halides when heated with small amount of alcohol and treated with AgCN, alkyl isocyanide is formed.
→ But when alkyl halide reacts with AgCN it always form RNC (alkyl isocyanide) because AgCN is a covalent compound which can not ionise easily therefore N atom attack as a nucleophile on the alkyl group (R).
→ From Amides : By dehydration of primary amides by phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5 ) or thionyl chloride (SOCl2), alkyl cyanides are formed.
and CH3CONH2 + SOCl2 → CH3CN + SO2↑+ HCl
→ From Aldoximes : Aldoximes are the functional group isomer of amide whose dehydration with phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) gives alkyl cyanides.
→ From Grignards Reagents : Alkyl cyanide can be prepared by the action of Grignard’s reagent on cyanogen chloride.
→ Carbylamine Test : When a primary amine is warmed with alcoholic KOH and chloroform, isocvanide is formed which have obnoxious smell.
→ From Carboxylic acid : To prepare alkyl cyanide on commercial scale relative carboxylic acid and ammonia are mixed and heated at 500°C on alumina.